By Gwendolyn Leick
The single English-language e-book of its type, this dictionary supplies a accomplished survey of the full variety of old close to jap structure: from the Neolithic around huts in Palestine to the enormous temples of Ptolemaic Egypt. Leick describes the differences of usual historical architectural buildings comparable to pyramids, tombs and homes, information the construction fabric and methods hired, and clarifies professional terminology.
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247); in Egypt they were introduced in the Middle Kingdom and tended to be cut from already laid blocks in a corbelled roof. The Hittites introduced the megalithic, parabolic arch, composed of two huge upright stone boulders inclined against each other until they met at the top (eg ALAÇA HÜYÜK, BOGHAZKÖY). The Elamites used arches and vaults a great deal, as did the Kassites in Mesopotamia. Works’, it is not certain whether they were actually engaged in the creative part of the enterprise, as the western usage of the word ‘architect’ implies.
There is evidence of a wellbuilt system of canalisation. The main public building (the so-called Templepalace) stood in its own temenos and incorporated a colonnade of stone pillars on either side of a corridor-shaped court. Although the plan is not quite clear it appears that a series of small chambers and parallel oblong rooms surrounded a square main room or courtyard. , Ausgrabungen von Alaça Hüyük: 1940–48 (Ankara 1966) 10 ALTINTEPE Egyptian altar, Karnak Temple at Altintepe 11 AL-UBAID Urartian sanctuaries (Arinberd, KARMIRBLUR) which were inspired by the palatial wall-decorations of Assyria.
The countryside between the Tigris, the foothills of Kurdistan and the lesser Zab, which constituted the heartland of Assyria, was a fertile region. At the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC, Assyrian merchants were responsible for much of the trade in precious metals and other commodities conducted with Anatolia and southern Mesopotamia. Around 1400 BC Assyria emerged as a major political power and gradually extended its territorial and military supremacy until it grew into an empire that dominated the whole of the Near East including Egypt, until it collapsed around 610 BC under the combined onslaught of Medes and Babylonians.
Ancient Eastern Architecture by Gwendolyn Leick