By D. R. Griffin (auth.), D. R. Griffin (eds.)
the oleic acid on a reside and wriggling sister or mom and chorus from evicting her from our hive. yet does the take place rence of unintelligent habit suffice to illustrate the entire absence of psychological adventure below any conditions? Ethologists from a few far away galaxy may perhaps simply determine ex amples of silly and maladaptive habit in our personal species. yet do circumstances of human stupidity end up that none people is ever consciously conscious of what he's dOing? No to be had evi dence compels us to think that bugs, or the other animals, adventure any kind of recognition, or deliberately plan any in their habit. yet neither are we pressured to think the opposite. In components the place info are few and of restricted rel evance, dogmatic negativity can simply restrict what scientists even try and examine, and therefore maybe hold up or hinder im portant insights and discoveries. a few of the individuals agreed reliable place to begin will be to contemplate what we all know of our personal pondering, subjec tive emotions, and cognizance, after which stream directly to inquire no matter if different species event something comparable. Such an ap proach used to be thought of fallaciously anthropomorphic. however it turns out now to be extensively if now not universally well-known that it is a severe objection provided that one has already assumed upfront that unsleeping considering is uniquely human, and the accu sation of anthropomorphism is then simply a reiteration of the earlier conviction.
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Additional resources for Animal Mind — Human Mind: Report of the Dahlem Workshop on Animal Mind — Human Mind, Berlin 1981, March 22–27
Assuming that REM sleep is associated with "dreaming" in lower animals as well as ourselves, Jouvet has speculated that this brain state is important for the programming of instinctive behaviors under the influence of genetic and epigenetic factors; possibly this involves a reprogramming of synapses in the forebrain, by means of the ascending monoaminergic projections. The similarities of the basic EEG patterns among many mammalian and avian species, particularly those associated with states of conscious awareness in man (alpha rhythm, desynchronized EEG, REM sleep pattern), suggest that processes resembling consciousness have a wide phylogenetic distribution.
Each generation of humans benefits from the cumulative knowledge of previous generations. We can profit from the errors of the past, without actually experiencing them ourselves, by following symbolic instructions from others. other animals (with the possible exception of great apes) seem to lack this ability. However, they have special capabilities for their own environments that suit them very well even though these abilities may be of limited value to us. A refreshing perspective on the nature of vertebrate intelligence may be found in a discussion of the intelligence of invertebrates by Corning, Dyal and Lahue (7).
The only types of "intellectual" skills that seemed to produce the desired hierarchy were what could loosely be called complex behavior such as rule learning, 40 W. Hodos abstraction, tool use and the like. quieting puzzles remained: Even so, a number of dis- Why should some birds perform better than some mammals, including some primates? Why should some nonprimate mammals perform better than some primates? These questions remain puzzling only if one accepts the "psychological scale" as a model for the evolution of intelligence.
Animal Mind — Human Mind: Report of the Dahlem Workshop on Animal Mind — Human Mind, Berlin 1981, March 22–27 by D. R. Griffin (auth.), D. R. Griffin (eds.)